Michele Brown was vaccinated - but had a suppressed immune system. Would better health advice have saved her?

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The feeling of alleviation was immense arsenic 58-year-old Michele Brown returned location from the vaccine centre. Her husband, Terry, 61, had taken clip disconnected from his occupation arsenic a supervisor astatine a dense machinery mill to thrust her to her 2nd Covid-19 vaccination astatine a Gateshead assemblage centre. In the car, Michele told her spouse of 40 years that she felt similar a value had been lifted disconnected her shoulders. “She said: ‘At slightest we’ve got that done,’” Terry remembers. “‘We’ll beryllium OK.’”

It was 28 April 2021. Michele, who had rheumatoid arthritis, an underactive thyroid and diabetes, had spent the past twelvemonth and a fractional shielding indoors, connected authorities advice. She was careful. She had a Covid presumption acceptable up connected the meal counter: lateral travel tests, bottles of antibacterial gel and disposable look masks. When household came to visit, a mask-wearing Michele would banish them to the furthest country of the surviving room. “We couldn’t buss her,” remembers her daughter, Kim Brown, 41, who lives successful Durham. “She would say: ‘You mightiness person the coronies! I don’t privation nary coronies. You’re not giving maine that crap.’”

After her vaccinations, Michele relaxed a tiny bit. She fto her household sojourn much often, and stopped wearing a disguise indoors erstwhile they did. But she inactive wasn’t going retired much: her rheumatoid arthritis made adjacent little excursions exhausting. Most of the time, Michele stayed home, chatting to Kim connected the phone, watching TV and ordering endless packages online. By the clip they arrived she seldom had a hint what was successful them. When the quality came on, Michele would sigh. “She’d spot the numbers spell up,” says Kim, “and say: ‘Those mediocre people. Those mediocre families.’”

Michele’s household are mystified arsenic to however she caught Covid – unless 1 of her uncommon visitors brought it into the house, oregon possibly it was erstwhile she went for a doctor’s appointment. It doesn’t truly matter. When Michele became infected, it wrecked her assemblage with brutal efficiency. Unknown to her, her immune strategy had been suppressed, astir apt by the drugs she took to negociate her arthritis, truthful her assemblage had failed to equine a bully effect to the Covid-19 vaccine. In different words, the vaccine hadn’t worked for her.

“I ne'er heard thing similar ‘immunocompromised’,” says Terry, bewildered and distraught. “We ne'er did.”

Terry Brown, Michele’s husband.
Terry Brown, Michele’s husband. Photograph: Christopher Owens/The Guardian

Michele was calved successful 1962, successful the colony of Stannington, Northumberland, the eldest of 7 children. Her parents divided up erstwhile she was an infant. Her begetter yet won custody of Michele, but astatine her request, near her with her grandma Manuel, who raised her. “She had a hard childhood,” says Kim. “She swore her kids wouldn’t person the aforesaid childhood. And we didn’t. We had everything we wanted. Love. Affection. We didn’t privation for anything.”

Terry lived connected the aforesaid cul-de-sac arsenic Michele and Nana Manuel. It was the benignant of thoroughfare wherever everyone knew each other. The boys would play shot and the girls would watch. Everything took spot outdoors. He remembers the archetypal clip helium noticed her romantically. She was 17, sitting connected a partition extracurricular her grandmother’s house. Dressed casually. No makeup, jeans. Terry was coming backmost from the pub. He noticed however beauteous she was becoming. He tried to speech to her, but Manuel came retired and shooed him away.

They kept noticing each different successful the pub. Eventually, Michele’s person Brenda pushed them together. “She said: ‘Isn’t it astir clip you 2 went connected a due date?’” Terry recalls. “I thought, wherefore would Michele privation to day me? I was punching good supra my weight.” Their archetypal day was successful February 1982; by March, they were a couple. Michele had already fixed commencement to Kim by this point, though Kim’s begetter was not successful the picture. (Michele and Terry had a son, Terence James, successful 1988.)

Back then, Michele was outgoing and carefree. She worked the cloakroom successful a Newcastle nightclub with her champion friend, Sid, but spent astir of her clip connected the dancefloor instead. She dressed similar a New Romantic and got her aunt to customise apparel she picked up successful Oxfam. Her full life, she loved music, adjacent wearing headphones arsenic she fell asleep. Her tastes were eclectic – everything from Slipknot to George Michael. “She had specified a happening for George Michael,” says Kim. “We’d archer her helium was gay, and she’d say: ‘So what! I’ll person him.’”

Terry and Michele connected  their wedding day.
Terry and Michele connected their wedding day. Photograph: Courtesy of the Brown family

Michele worked successful a factory, arsenic a cleaner, and astatine a warehouse. She was clever, but unfulfilled. “If she’d applied herself erstwhile she was younger, she could person had a bully career,” says Terry. “She was frustrated.” Michele was superb astatine wide knowledge; radical would sometimes telephone her, erstwhile they were connected pub quizzes, to cheat. She besides loved animals. Once, aft visiting a zoo, she wrote the absorption a missive complaining that the cages were excessively small. In aboriginal life, she became obsessed with watching a household of gorillas successful a Japanese zoo connected YouTube. When Terry came location from work, she’d speech astir what the gorillas were up to.

Her wellness began to neglect successful her precocious 20s. She was diagnosed archetypal with leukopenia, meaning that she had a debased achromatic humor compartment count, and past with rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes. Because Terry was astatine enactment passim the pandemic, arsenic a cardinal worker, Michele was sometimes lonely; she’d telephone Kim successful the mediate of the time and enactment connected the telephone for 4 oregon 5 hours astatine a time. They were much similar champion friends than parent and daughter. “We’d speech astir everything,” says Kim. “Stuff you speech to your friends about. She was dormant funny.”

Despite her wellness issues, Michele was the fierce, uncompromising matriarch of the family. “She was the gaffer,” says Kim. “Everything went done her.” Sometimes she could beryllium blunt. “She had a abbreviated temper,” Kim says. “Everything was achromatic and white. You couldn’t explicate things to her. If she got a bee successful her bonnet astir thing you’d person to hold until she calmed down.” But Michele had tremendous instincts, particularly astir people. “I utilized to inquire her: ‘Have you studied achromatic magic?’” says Terry. “She was really good astatine picking up connected people. I’d ever accidental to her: ‘Michele, you should springiness radical a chance.’ And she’d accidental no, and further down the enactment she’d usually beryllium proved right. It would fascinate me, however she knew that.”

It is hard for Kim to judge that her parent – a pistillate with specified vitality and beingness unit – is dead. “She had specified a beardown character,” she says. “Her not being there, I can’t understand.” A fewer weeks aft Michele died, Kim called her mobile. “It was lone erstwhile the fig didn’t connect,” Kim says, “that my bosom sank, and I realised.”


In England alone, the Covid-19 vaccine is estimated to person prevented up to 24.1m infections and 126,800 deaths. Two doses of the Pfizer oregon Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine are respectively 96% and 92% effectual against hospitalisation with the Delta variant. (The effectiveness of the vaccines successful protecting against the Omicron variant is not yet known.)

But though the Covid-19 vaccine is harmless and highly effective, it cannot enactment connected everyone. For immoderate immunocompromised people, their bodies volition not equine a bully immune effect to the vaccination, meaning they neglect to nutrient the antibodies that should circulate successful their humor and recognise the Covid-19 microorganism if they aboriginal go infected. For these people, beingness successful post-lockdown Britain is afloat of hazard and trepidation: they are not protected from Covid-19 by the immunity a vaccination would provide, and nor are they capable to debar the pandemic entirely, fixed that tens of thousands of caller infections are being reported each azygous day.

People whitethorn beryllium immunosuppressed for 1 of 3 reasons. First, they person a familial information that means they person a superior occupation with their immune system. Second, due to the fact that they are afflicted with a illness that causes their immune strategy to beryllium underpowered. Third, due to the fact that they are taking medicine to dainty an underlying information that suppresses their immune system. Michele astir apt fitted into this last category. The medicine she took to negociate her arthritis, rituximab, is simply a known immunosuppressant. (She was taking different medicines to dainty intelligence wellness problems and diabetes, but nary of these are known to person the aforesaid effect.)

“When you person rheumatoid arthritis,” explains the rheumatologist Dr Zachary Wallace of Massachusetts wide hospital, “your immune strategy is fundamentally overreacting. It’s recognising things that it shouldn’t deliberation of arsenic a danger, similar its ain joints, arsenic a danger, and it is attacking them. That’s wherefore we usage medicines to suppress that process. But erstwhile we bash that, the immune strategy doesn’t enactment arsenic good astatine attacking viruses and different infections.” Wallace has been monitoring breakthrough infections successful afloat vaccinated patients with autoimmune conditions since aboriginal 2021. “People who person rituximab look to beryllium peculiarly astatine risk,” helium says. (Roche, which markets rituximab successful Europe arsenic MabThera, declined to comment.)

In the UK, a probe squad led by Prof Iain McInnes of Glasgow University has been examining the efficacy of Covid-19 vaccination successful radical with compromised immune systems. Initial findings from the Octave study said that astir 11% of immunocompromised radical failed to make immoderate antibodies to Covid-19 vaccination, and a further 29% generated a suboptimal antibody response, meaning they failed to nutrient the aforesaid level of antibodies a steadfast idiosyncratic would make successful effect to vaccination. The survey specifically identified rituximab arsenic an immunosupressant.

But Michele had nary thought astir immoderate of this. She had ne'er heard astir immunosuppressant drugs oregon what interaction they could person connected Covid-19 vaccination. In precocious March 2021, the Department of Health and Social Care wrote to her, telling her that shielding would beryllium paused from 1 April owed to the information that microorganism corruption rates were debased and 9 retired of 10 clinically highly susceptible radical had been vaccinated. Although the missive stated that “no vaccine is 100% effective”, determination was nary notation made of the fact that immunocompromised radical specifically mightiness not beryllium protected by the vaccine, and should see other measures to support themselves safe.

“There are immoderate people,” says Vicky Foxcroft, the Labour MP for Lewisham Deptford and shadiness curate for disabled people, “who were precise alert that the vaccines mightiness not work, and precise scared. But for a batch of others, the comms from the authorities has been: everything is fine. Crack on. Do what you were doing.” Foxcroft is herself immunocompromised; similar Michele, she has rheumatoid arthritis, and she has been advocating for immunocompromised radical passim the pandemic. “We’ve been an afterthought,” she says. “Probably due to the fact that we’re lone a tiny portion of the population, and we’re inconvenient. But it’s inactive not acceptable.”

Foxcroft tells maine that she often hears from immunocompromised radical who are being forced backmost to enactment by their employers. Although the administrations successful Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland are presently encouraging employees to enactment from location wherever possible, that proposal was cancelled successful England connected 19 July and has yet to beryllium reinstated, contempt the dispersed of the Omicron variant. “I’d similar to spot the guidance changed for employers,” Foxcroft says, “so that radical are capable to enactment from location if necessary.”

To marque substance worse, erstwhile shielding was paused connected 1 April, immunocompromised radical and others successful susceptible groups mislaid the fiscal enactment that helped them to stay astatine home.

Michele with Kim and babe  Terence successful  1988.
Michele with Kim and babe Terence successful 1988. Photograph: Courtesy of the Brown family

Foxcroft herself does not consciousness harmless successful the workplace. “I privation radical would deterioration their masks successful parliament,” she says. “But I effort not to deliberation astir it. Because however other would I bash my job?”


Michele became sick connected 6 July. She fainted connected the mode to the toilet and Terry had to transportation her to bed. He called an ambulance but the hold clip was 4 hours, and erstwhile the paramedics yet arrived and checked Michele implicit they said she was fine.

The pursuing day, Michele was confused. She kept trying to portion from a vessel of h2o without taking the lid off. Terry called for an ambulance, but they told him it would beryllium a five-hour wait. He tried to thrust Michele to the infirmary himself, but she refused to get successful the car – Michele notoriously hated hospitals and would often flight from them if forcibly admitted.

By 9 July, Michele had stopped making sense. Terry asked her however she felt and she looked done him wordlessly. She couldn’t retrieve her day of birth. Terry called 111 and asked for an ambulance, and was told that it would instrumentality 2 hours. When the paramedics yet arrived they asked Michele who Terry was. “She conscionable stared astatine maine blankly,” helium remembers.

After she was admitted, a doc from the Queen Elizabeth infirmary successful Gateshead called Terry. He told him that Michele was earnestly sick and asked if doctors should effort to resuscitate her if her bosom oregon breathing stopped. He besides told Terry that Michele had Covid. “I didn’t for 1 infinitesimal deliberation she would die,” says Terry. “She was treble vaccinated. As acold arsenic I was acrophobic she was poorly but not earnestly ill.” Later, doctors told Terry that they had tested Michele, and recovered that she didn’t person immoderate antibodies from the vaccine.

“Freedom Day” – 19 July – came and went for the Brown household successful a fug of grief. Michele was by present successful intensive care. Terry wasn’t allowed in, owed to the Covid visitant restrictions. He begged them to fto him visit. “I said, ‘We’ve had state day. Thousands of radical astatine Wembley, cheering the England shot squad on. And you’re saying I can’t beryllium with my wife, who is dying?’”

Kim spoke to her parent connected the phone, close earlier they enactment her connected a ventilator. It was a disturbing telephone call. Michele told Kim that she felt awful, and she was tired. Kim got the consciousness that she didn’t privation to bent up. She could perceive her parent struggling to breathe, and coughing. “I conscionable knew,” Kim says. “I knew what was coming.”

Doctors placed Michele connected a ventilator, and dialysis, but it was nary use. She died connected 29 July. The infirmary fto the household sojourn Michele astatine the end. “It was horrific,” says Kim.I held her hand, and I was kissing it. But I knew that she was gone.” The household decided to crook disconnected Michele’s ventilator. “She’d been done enough,” says Kim. “She was bruised to bits, from wherever they took humor from her. We fto her gaffe off.”

The hardest happening for Terry was not being capable to spot Michele aft helium near the hospital. “It was a closed coffin due to the fact that of Covid. That killed me.” He thought helium would beryllium capable to spot his woman again, to accidental goodbye.


Stories of radical who died of breakthrough infections – erstwhile a idiosyncratic becomes infected with Covid-19 aft being vaccinated – are regular successful online anti-vaxx oregon anti-lockdown communities. “Fully vaccinated antheral dies of Covid-19”, reads 1 station shared connected an anti-vaxx Facebook radical with 31,000 members. “The afloat vaccinated dice of Covid!” reads different station connected a Facebook radical with 6,500 members. “Will the mainstream media commencement recognising the facts of Covid vaccines – they are lethal?”

When the vaccinated erstwhile US caput of authorities Colin Powell died with Covid-19 past October, anti-vaxxers and vaccine-sceptics heralded his decease arsenic impervious that the vaccine is ineffective. “Colin Powell died from Covid and helium was afloat vaccinated,” work 1 emblematic post. “So what’s the constituent of the vaccine?” (Powell had myeloma, a humor cancer that enactment him astatine greater hazard from the virus.)

“This communicative comes up again and again,” says Pippa Allen-Kinross of the factchecking organisation Full Fact, which has been examining online misinformation passim the pandemic. “It’s truly difficult, due to the fact that we cognize the vaccine is not 100% effective. But we bash cognize that it’s truly effective, and makes a immense difference.”

In reality, erstwhile 4.3 cardinal radical worldwide person received a dose of the Covid vaccine, breakthrough infections are to beryllium expected. In the play 2 January to 2 July 2021, 640 afloat vaccinated radical died of breakthrough infections successful England, retired of 51,281 deaths. Of those 640 deaths, 84 (13%) were in immunocompromised people. Unvaccinated radical are presently estimated to beryllium 32 times more likely to dice of Covid-19 than afloat vaccinated people, though experts have warned that determination is uncertainty successful this header figure.

“Deaths successful vaccinated radical person repeatedly been utilized to backmost up claims that the vaccines don’t work,” says the statistician Prof David Spiegelhalter of Cambridge University. “But erstwhile astir susceptible radical person been vaccinated, and the vaccine is little than perfect, past it is inevitable that determination volition beryllium deaths successful vaccinated people, and so they person formed the bulk of Covid deaths for months. This is basal maths.” He uses the illustration of seatbelts. “Most car occupants who dice successful crashes are wearing seatbelts, due to the fact that astir everyone is wearing a spot loop and they don’t supply afloat protection. This does not mean that seatbelts ‘don’t work’ – it conscionable means they trim risk.”

Part of the problem, says Allen-Kinross, is that authorities information is truthful casual to misinterpret. “It’s precise casual for radical to usage this information successful a misleading way, to suggest that vaccines don’t enactment astatine all.” She uses the illustration of the Joe Rogan Experience podcast, which is 1 of the most-listened to podcasts successful the US. On 12 October 2021, Rogan hosted American writer Alex Berenson, who stated – incorrectly – that “people who are vaccinated with 2 doses are much apt to beryllium infected with Sars-CoV-2 than radical who are not vaccinated”.

Full Fact subsequently debunked Berenson’s claims. But fixed that Rogan’s podcast has an estimated assemblage of 11 cardinal an episode, these efforts, portion a laudable endeavour, are apt to beryllium seen by lone a tiny percent of the radical who received the earlier misinformation. “This atrocious information,” says Allen-Kinross, “really ruins lives.”


At the Brown location successful Gateshead, everything is unchanged. Michele’s dressing gown inactive hangs connected the backmost of the chamber door. There are bottles of antibacterial gel connected the worktop. “The full location is Michele,” Terry says. “It’s her home. It volition ever beryllium her home, arsenic agelong arsenic I’m breathing.” He is racked with guilt. “Why did I fto this happen?” helium asks. “I didn’t support her.”

Terry and Michele astatine  their engagement party.
Terry and Michele astatine their engagement party. Photograph: Courtesy of the Brown family

Terry wishes helium had known that her vaccinations didn’t work. “I support thinking,” Terry says, done choked sobs, “that if I’d been aware, we’d person stayed successful our bubble. We wouldn’t person allowed anyone to visit. We’d person stuck to the aforesaid authorities we had astatine the start. That’s what I’m uncovering difficult. Because we’d done everything we were expected to do. The vaccines were to america similar a lifeboat successful choppy seas.”

There are astir apt different families successful the aforesaid concern arsenic Terry and Michele: unaware that the vaccines they trust connected to support them harmless may, successful fact, beryllium ineffective. “Very often radical don’t cognize however their medicines whitethorn impact them,” says Lara Wong of Clinically Vulnerable Families UK. “They don’t realise, which means they whitethorn not beryllium taking each the steps they perchance tin to support themselves.”

In September, the Department of Health and Social Care wrote to radical connected the shielding list, to pass them that shielding had officially ended. It tells the Guardian: “We announced an extremity to the shielding programme based connected the occurrence of the Covid-19 vaccination programme successful reducing superior unwellness and decease from Covid-19 and the emergence of proven treatments.”

The missive to shielders advised: “If you are immunosuppressed and person immoderate concerns astir what this means for you, past delight rise this with your specializer astatine your adjacent regular appointment.”

“I haven’t seen my specializer for months,” says Foxcroft, pointing retired that determination is an tremendous post-pandemic backlog of non-urgent NHS care. “It’s intolerable to get an appointment. And adjacent if you bash get advised to shield, there’s no authorities enactment available for shielders. So what bash they do? Do they suffer their job? What’s the score?”

For immunocompromised radical who are alert that their vaccines whitethorn not work, oregon enactment little good – beingness successful a post-unlocking UK is afloat of anxiousness and trepidation. “People say: ‘Why don’t they conscionable fell away?’” says Wong. “But what they don’t realise is that a batch of the radical person been. They’ve been astatine location for the past 2 years. If corruption rates were lower, they could person a beingness arsenic well. When we support the astir vulnerable, we support everyone.”

Booster jabs person gone immoderate mode to allaying their concerns: the archetypal findings from the Octave study, published successful August 2021, were utilized to inform the government’s determination to connection at-risk groups, including immunocompromised people, booster vaccines successful September. McInnes’s probe squad is present moving connected the Octave Duo study, to find the effectiveness of booster vaccines successful immunocompromised people. “The preliminary data,” says McInnes, “shows that a important proportionality of radical are benefiting from a 3rd inoculation, and we deliberation it’s a bully thought to further rotation retired this programme.” Last week, successful effect to Omicron, the authorities announced plans to connection severely immunosuppressed radical a 4th dose of the vaccine arsenic a booster.

Michele with grandchildren Cieran and Aaliyah successful  Mallorca.
Michele with grandchildren Cieran and Aaliyah successful Mallorca. Photograph: Courtesy of the Brown family

But Wong points retired that galore immunocompromised radical volition person children attending school. Until the advent of the Omicron variant successful precocious November, the authorities did not inquire pupils to deterioration masks successful English schools. Even now, it is lone powerfully advised successful communal areas, and the bubble strategy has been scrapped. Some parents person been threatened with prosecution for pulling their children retired of schoolhouse erstwhile lawsuit numbers are high. This month, Clinically Vulnerable Families UK wrote to the acquisition secretary, Nadhim Zahawi, urging him to licence distant acquisition for the children of clinically susceptible households, alternatively than mandate specified children instrumentality to in-school education. “There are light-touch measures we could enactment into spot that would marque things safer for everyone,” Wong says. “Hepa aerial filters successful school, to cleanable the air; disguise wearing to beryllium powerfully encouraged.”

Some immunocompromised radical person called for antibody investigating to beryllium routinely offered to those who petition it, to spot if the vaccine has been effective. “The occupation is,” says Wallace, “these tests are hard to interpret, due to the fact that we don’t person each the accusation astir what an capable level of antibodies is yet.” Monoclonal antibody treatments, which are laboratory-made antibodies to assistance a idiosyncratic combat infection, whitethorn besides beryllium effectual successful treating radical with debased immunity. Wallace besides urges his immunocompromised patients to “be cautious, deterioration masks successful public, and debar densely populated places that don’t person bully ventilation. Only socialise with radical they cognize are vaccinated and feeling well.”

These immunocompromised radical look doomed to proceed to unrecorded a half-life for the foreseeable future. And with the Omicron variant spreading passim the UK, it seems apt that the wider nationalist volition beryllium forced into the anxious wariness that has go the norm for immunocompromised radical for astir 2 years. They watch, and they wait, portion the families of the 145,000 radical who person died with Covid-19 successful the UK mourn. And they commune they won’t beryllium next.